Food Technology

Heteroglycans

Carbohydrates are the important classes of organic compounds found in the biological systems in addition to proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.  These are a set of naturally occurring compound containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, with hydrogen and oxygen generally in the ratio of two to one atom as in water. These include the compounds like glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, starch, glycogen, chitin, and cellulose.Most of the carbohydrates found in nature occur as polysaccharides of high molecular weight.

ANALYSIS OF PROTEINS

Proteins are polymers of amino acids. Twenty different types of amino acids occur naturally in proteins. Proteins differ from each other according to the type, number and sequence of amino acids that make up the polypeptide backbone. As a result, they have different molecular structures, nutritional attributes and physiochemical properties. Proteins are important constituents of foods for a number of different reasons.

Fatty acids

Fatty acids are defined as compounds synthesized in nature by condensation of malonyl coenzyme A units under the influence of a fatty acid synthase complex. Fatty acid molecule is amphipathic and has two distinct regions or ends i.e a long hydrocarbon chain, which is hydrophobic (water insoluble) and not very reactive chemically, and a carboxyl acid group which is ionized in solution (COO-), extremely hydrophilic (water soluble) and readily forms esters and amides.

REFRIGERATION

Refrigeration involves the storage of food products at lower temperatures to preserve them and to extend their shelf life, which would otherwise be reduced if food were stored at ambient temperatures. Refrigeration temperatures lower the rates of biochemical reactions and microbial growth, and consequently preserve foods for longer times. However, it is to be kept in mind that refrigeration does not act as bactericidal and upon subjecting the food to ambient conditions, the spoilage activities may resume.

X-ray spectroscopy (XRS)

This module has been developed to describe some of the more advanced instrumental methods which may be used for the determination of nutrients, major ions and trace elements, together with the analytical techniques for total, inorganic and organic carbon. Some of these techniques are particularly useful for the detailed analysis of sediments, particularly those that are suspended and for the chemical analysis of biota.

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, also known as NMR spectroscopy, is an analytical technique that is used to determine the physical and chemical properties of atoms and molecules by analyzing the behaviour and properties of their nuclei in externally applied magnetic field. It is a powerful non- selective and non-destructive analytical tool that enables you to ascertain molecular structure including relative configuration, relative and absolute concentrations, and even intermolecular interactions of an analyte.

Ice cream Part-II (History, composition & preparation)

The basic steps in the manufacturing of ice cream are generally as : Blending of the mix, Pasteurization, Homogenization, Ageing of the mix, Freezing, Packaging & Hardening. Ice cream defects are generally traceable to some identifiable cause which should be included in the surveillance and control measures assigned to quality assurance. However, gross abuse of the product may occur beyond the sphere of a plant's control (possibly in the hands of the ultimate consumer), in which case little can be done other than to attempt to educate those involved.

Ice cream Part-1 (History, composition & preparation)

No one knows exactly when ice cream was first produced. Dairy foods' include a wide variety of foods such as milk, butter, yogurt, cream, ice cream, and cheese. These foods represent some of the most important types of foods in Western societies. The manufacture of ice cream has progressed from a homemaker's art to a sophisticated factory operation and from a product of variable composition to one whose composition is carefully selected and precisely monitored.

CURING AND SALTING OF MEAT

The salting and smoking of meat was an ancient practice even before the birth of Christ. These early processed meat products were prepared for one purpose, their preservation for use at some future time. Salt was used at concentrations high enough to preserve the meat. Preservation by smok¬ingis believed to have been developed inadequately by the primitive tribes. The American Indians preserved meat prior to settlement by Europeans by hanging it in the top of a teepee to maximize contact with campfire smoke.

Milling of rice & its by-products

Rice milling is to remove the hull, bran, and germ with minimum breakage of the starchy endosperm. There are two stages in rice milling, the first being dehulling and the second whitening. The Engleberg huller, under- run disk sheller and the rubber- roll husker are the principal machines used in dehulling. After husking, the paddy and products are separated. The first stage is to remove the light weight husk in a current of air.

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