Bio Medical Science

Biological Databases

The talk of this lecture is to understand some basic concepts related to biological databases.

In this lecture the expert discussed the ways how biology is entering a new era in which data are being generated.

Endocrine glands, their hormones, structure, regulation and diseases

Hormones are specific chemical messengers that exert effects at points some distance removed from their sites of production. Hormones may of course diffuse from one place to another but as would be expected in animals with well-developed circulatory systems, most of their transport in mammals is by the blood. The tissues and organs that produce and release hormones are termed endocrine tissues and endocrine organs. The use of the word “endocrine” i.e.

Action Potential and Synaptic Transmission

An action potential is a transient depolarization of the membrane potential of excitable cells. They serve two main functions: to transmit and encode information, and to initiate cellular events such as muscular contraction. An action potential results from a transient change to the properties of the cell membrane, from a state where it is much more permeable to K+ than Na+, to a reversal of these permeability properties. Thus during the action potential an influx of Na+ is responsible for the rapid depolarization and an efflux of K+ causes repolarization.

Molecular Phylogenetics and Phylogenetic Analysis Databases

In molecular phylogeny, the relationships among organisms or genes are studied by comparing homologues of DNA, RNA or protein sequences. Dissimilarities among the sequences indicate genetic divergence as a result of molecular evolution during the course of time. While classical phylogenetic approach relies on morphological characteristics of an organism, the molecular approaches depend on nucleotide sequences of DNA and RNA. This programme explains the role of Molecular Phylogenetics and the Databases available for Phylogenetic Analyses.

Antimicrobial Drugs: General consideration

Antimicrobial drugs are the greatest contribution of the 20th century to therapeutics. Their advent changed the outlook of the physician about the power drugs can have on diseases. They are one of the few drugs which can cure, and not just palliate disease. Their importance is magnified in the developing countries, where infective diseases predominate.

Basic principles of electromagnetic radiation , Energy, Wavelength, Wave Numbe and Frequency, Molecular Orbital Theory.


Mechanical waves and electromagnetic waves are two important ways through which energy is transported in the world around us. Waves in water and sound waves in air are two examples of mechanical waves. Mechanical waves are caused by a disturbance or vibration in matter whether it is in solid, gas, liquid, or plasma.


Vicosity ; Theory and its measurement , Relation between Intrinsic viscosity and Molecular weight , Measurement of Visco-elasticity of DNA

Viscosity is the internal friction of a moving fluid. A fluid with large viscosity resists motion because its molecular make up gives it a lot of internal friction. Similarly a fluid with low viscosity flows easily because its molecular makeup results in very little friction when it is in motion. Absolute viscosity-coefficient of absolute viscosity is a measure of internal resistance.


Custom is a habitual course of conduct observed uniformly and voluntarily by the people. Custom occupies an important place in regulation of human conduct in almost all the societies. In fact, it is one of the oldest sources of law-making. But with progress of the society custom gradually diminish and legislation and judicial precedents become the main source. Custom is created by the people, by their unconscious adoption of a certain rule of conduct whenever the same problem arises for solution and its authority is based on nothing but its long continued use and recognition by the people.


The record of human suffering and death caused by smallpox, cholera, typhus, dysentery, malaria, etc. establishes the eminence of the infectious diseases. Despite the outstanding successes in control afforded by improved sanitation, immunization, and antimicrobial therapy, the infectious diseases continue to be a common and significant problem of modern medicine. Three infectious diseases were ranked in the top ten causes of death globally in the most recent survey by the World Health Organization.


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