Bilqees Aslam Shah

Role of CBSC in Secondary Education

The programme is about Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and its role in secondary education in India.

The expert in the programme talks about the historical background of CBSC and how has its impacted the secondary education system in India.

The expert further discusses the organizational setup of CBSE, besides giving a detailed overview of the role played by CBSE in secondary education system.


Frustration is an emotion that occurs in situations where a person is blocked from reaching a desired outcome. In general, whenever we reach one of our goals, we feel pleased and whenever we, are prevented from reaching our goals, we may succumb to frustration and feel irritable, annoyed and angry. Typically, the more important the goal, the greater is the frustration, and resultant anger, or loss of confidence. Frustration is not necessarily bad since it can be a useful indicator of the problems in a person's life and, as a result, it can act as a motivator to change.

Meaning of Development

Each individual, with his unique heredity and the way he is nurtured, determines the way he traverses the broad highway of his life at his rate of progress. The terms growth and development are often used interchangeably. Actually, they are conceptually different. Growth refers to quantitative changes in size, which include physical changes in height, weight, size, internal organs, etc. As an individual develops old, features like baby fat, and teeth, etc. disappear and new features like facial hair are acquired.

Nature and Scope of Educational Psychology

Nature and scope of Educational Psychology is a lecture on education and its entwinement with psychology. In this lecture, expert discusses the psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning. The talk elaborates the meaning of educational psychology. The lecture further underscores the nature and scope of educational   psychology.


Whenever man is faced with a situation which promises serious consequences for his mental balance, a state of conflict or injury, and he is not successful in achieving any direct adjustment with that situation, then in order to attain such an adjustment, he takes recourse to certain defensive or escapist situations that certainly do satisfy the drive or motive even without attaining the actual objective. These mental constructions are called mental mechanisms.


Conflict is an inevitable part of life. Each of us possesses our own opinions, ideas and sets of beliefs. We have our own ways of looking at things and we act according to what we think is proper. Hence, we often find ourselves in conflict in different scenarios; may it involve other individuals, groups of people, or a struggle within our own selves. Conflict influences our actions and decisions in one way or another. There are actually a lot of ways to define conflict due to how it is used in many areas.

Applications of Educational Psychology in teaching- learning and in understanding individuals' behavior

Educational Psychology consists of two words Psychology and Education. While general Psychology is a pure science. Educational Psychology is its application in the field of education with the aim of socializing man and modifying his behavior. Educational psychology is the study of the learner, learning and teaching. In some more comprehensive way it is the study of the ways in which the learner can most effectively be brought into successful interaction with the material to be learnt, the learning situation and the teacher who provides the learning opportunity.


According to Psychological Dictionary, Adjustment is, "The variations and changes in behavior that are necessary to satisfy needs and meet demands so that one can establish a harmonious relationship with the environment." If one fails to make these 'variations and changes', the 'needs' will not be satisfied, the 'demands' will not be met; thus he/she will not be able to 'establish a harmonious relationship with the environment' resulting in maladjustment or disharmony with one's environment.


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