Afshan Mumtaz Hamdani

Heteroglycans

Carbohydrates are the important classes of organic compounds found in the biological systems in addition to proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.  These are a set of naturally occurring compound containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, with hydrogen and oxygen generally in the ratio of two to one atom as in water. These include the compounds like glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, starch, glycogen, chitin, and cellulose.Most of the carbohydrates found in nature occur as polysaccharides of high molecular weight.

X-ray spectroscopy (XRS)

This module has been developed to describe some of the more advanced instrumental methods which may be used for the determination of nutrients, major ions and trace elements, together with the analytical techniques for total, inorganic and organic carbon. Some of these techniques are particularly useful for the detailed analysis of sediments, particularly those that are suspended and for the chemical analysis of biota.

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, also known as NMR spectroscopy, is an analytical technique that is used to determine the physical and chemical properties of atoms and molecules by analyzing the behaviour and properties of their nuclei in externally applied magnetic field. It is a powerful non- selective and non-destructive analytical tool that enables you to ascertain molecular structure including relative configuration, relative and absolute concentrations, and even intermolecular interactions of an analyte.

Simple Sugars

The objective of this programme is to acquaint the students with different types of simple sugars and oligosaccharides. Sugar is a name used for carbohydrates, which is one of the four classes of organic compounds found in the biological systems in addition to proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.  These are a set of naturally occurring compound containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen with hydrogen and oxygen generally in the ratio of two to one atom as in water. Carbohydrates are the most abundant organic compounds in the plant world as well as among the other living organisms.

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