Abdul Rashid


Carbohydrates are the important classes of organic compounds found in the biological systems in addition to proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.  These are a set of naturally occurring compound containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, with hydrogen and oxygen generally in the ratio of two to one atom as in water. These include the compounds like glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, starch, glycogen, chitin, and cellulose.Most of the carbohydrates found in nature occur as polysaccharides of high molecular weight.

Endocrine glands, their hormones, structure, regulation and diseases

Hormones are specific chemical messengers that exert effects at points some distance removed from their sites of production. Hormones may of course diffuse from one place to another but as would be expected in animals with well-developed circulatory systems, most of their transport in mammals is by the blood. The tissues and organs that produce and release hormones are termed endocrine tissues and endocrine organs. The use of the word “endocrine” i.e.

Action Potential and Synaptic Transmission

An action potential is a transient depolarization of the membrane potential of excitable cells. They serve two main functions: to transmit and encode information, and to initiate cellular events such as muscular contraction. An action potential results from a transient change to the properties of the cell membrane, from a state where it is much more permeable to K+ than Na+, to a reversal of these permeability properties. Thus during the action potential an influx of Na+ is responsible for the rapid depolarization and an efflux of K+ causes repolarization.

Fatty acids

Fatty acids are defined as compounds synthesized in nature by condensation of malonyl coenzyme A units under the influence of a fatty acid synthase complex. Fatty acid molecule is amphipathic and has two distinct regions or ends i.e a long hydrocarbon chain, which is hydrophobic (water insoluble) and not very reactive chemically, and a carboxyl acid group which is ionized in solution (COO-), extremely hydrophilic (water soluble) and readily forms esters and amides.

Structure of Disaccharides & Polysaccharides

A carbohydrate or saccharide is a group that includes sugars, starch, and cellulose. These perform numerous roles in living organisms, they play key roles in the immune system, fertilization, preventing pathogenesis, blood clotting, and development. There are various types of saccharides, including monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides Monosaccharide is the smallest possible sugar unit. They are the simplest carbohydrates in that they cannot be hydrolyzed to smaller carbohydrates. The 5-carbon monosaccharide ribose is an important component of coenzymes (e g., ATP.

Revised National Policy on Education (1992)

The National Policy on Education (NPE) was adopted by Parliament in May 1986. A committee was set up under the chairmanship of Acharya Ramamurti in May 1990 to review NPE and to make recommendations for its modifications. That Committee submitted its report in December 1990. At the request of the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) a committee was set up in July 1991 under the chairmanship of Shri N.

Functions of SCERT

The 1986 National Policy on Education, recommended the creation of State Council of Educational Research and Training (SCERT) in each State as a measure of decentralization of functions of quality education, research and training. SCERT, Delhi, was set up as an autonomous body under the Societies Registration Act in May, 1988. It receives funding from GNCT of Delhi under the Grants-in-aid scheme. 9 District Institutes of Education and Training (DIETs) have been set up for each of the 9 revenue districts in Delhi and these operate under the overall administrative control of SCERT.

Wood’s Despatch

The early years of the second half of the nineteenth century was a period of great importance, when a tide of westernization strongly set in on Indian soil. The despatch confers upon the natives of Indians those vast and material blessings which flow from the general diffusion and western knowledge. It aimed to produce a high degree of intellectual fitness and'raise the moral character of those who partake of the above advantages.

Education as reflection of social change

Education is one of the most important means to improve personal endowments, build capabilities, overcome constraints and in the process enlarge available set of opportunities and choices for a sustained improvement in well­being. The process of education and attainments therefore has an impact on all aspects of life. It is a critical invasive instrument for bringing about social, economic and political inclusion of people. Education can be used as a tool to empower the individual. Through child centered learning, students are able to see their own role in transformation.


Subscribe to RSS - Abdul Rashid